Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as one of the prominent bacterial pathogens which causes various diseases such as skin infections, pneumonia, and septicemia and is often resistant to one or more antibiotics, including methicillin. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for contagious bacterial infection caused by a type of staph bacteria. MRSA is easily communicable and is resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics. A person can be colonized with MRSA either by skin-to-skin contact with another person affected by MRSA or by touching an infected surface. It is categorized into three types-
- Hospital-associated MRSA
- Healthcare-associated MRSA
- Community-associated MRSA
MRSA is a significant cause of healthcare-associated infections as it occurs in people with weak immune systems who have been in hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis centers. Hospital-associated MRSA infections typically are associated with surgical wounds or invasive devices, like catheters or implanted feeding tubes or artificial joints. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) can be widely spread among healthy people that are living in the community or have more close skin contact. MRSA generally does not usually cause a problem, but if they enter any human body, it might lead to a severe infection. Due to these bacteria, a person can develop sepsis or pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. Many experiences public health professionals are petrified by the spread of tough strains of MRSA. It can cause swollen, painful red bumps which can quickly turn into deep, painful abscesses that require surgical draining. MRSA can also be found in municipal wastewater streams and receiving surface waters which can have hazardous effects on the health of individuals who come into contact with these water resources. MRSA can be associated with severe necrotizing infection especially influenza with significant morbidity and mortality. In the hospital, people infected with MRSA should be placed on “contact precautions”. Anyone who comes in contact with the patient should wash their hands regularly. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are the best substitute for disinfecting hands. Always keep the wound covered and avoid touching other people’s wounds or bandages. Athletes with skin infections should receive immediate treatment. Sanitize linens and don’t inject illegal drugs.
There are various drugs available for treating MRSA infection-acquired patients. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide may be useful for treating bacteremia and endocarditis. Linezolid, teicoplanin, daptomycin, oxazolidinones, telavancin, and ceftaroline can be also be used for the treatment of infections caused by drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Combination therapies of these drugs are nowadays used as a treatment option for persistent MRSA bacteremia or bacteremia. There has been an inadequate amount of anti-MRSA drugs which in turn are also responsible for higher toxicity and comorbidities in patients, therefore, strategies including novel bioactive natural products are being under evaluation for the treatment of MRSA infections. A recent study has reported that extracts of medicinal plants have significant anti-MRSA activity. They contain numerous substances contributing to antibacterial activity. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica fruits have antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, and hepatoprotective properties and further in-vitro studies have confirmed they also have anti-MRSA activity.
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