Bionanoparticles can be synthesized by top-down or bottom-up approaches. Both of these approaches require high temperatures and vacuum conditions resulting in the production of toxic and harsh products which may cause adverse effects on organisms including microorganisms, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates at various trophic levels. Nevertheless, if these synthesized nanomaterials are subject to the actual applications, then they can suffer from the following limitation:
- Stability in a hostile environment
- Lack of understanding in fundamental mechanism and modeling factors
- Bioaccumulation/toxicity features
- Expansive analysis requirements
- Need for skilled operators
- The problem in devices assembling and structures
To overcome the following limitations, the concept of green nanotechnology has emerged which involves the synthesis of nanomaterial from microorganisms, macroorganisms, and other biological materials. In contrast to top-down and bottom-up approaches, this technology includes environmentally friendly and cost-effective synthesizing methods. Green synthesis technology synthesizes a wide range of metals, metal oxides, hybrid, and bioinspired nanomaterials through the build-up of reliable, sustainable, and eco-friendly synthesis procedures by avoiding the production of unwanted or harmful by-products. Bacteria, fungi, algae, and plant extracts can be used for synthesizing green nanoparticles. Among the available green methods of synthesis for these nanoparticles, the utilization of plant extracts is a rather simple and easy process to produce nanoparticles at a large scale relative to other biological materials. Green methods of synthesis are gaining immense attention because of their potential to reduce the toxicity of nanoparticles. Bionanoparticles have numerous applications in different fields like-
- Agricultural engineering
- X-ray imaging
- Drug delivery
Silver nanoparticles are the most appreciated inorganic nanoparticles utilized as efficient antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents. Various nanoparticles such as metal-containing nanoparticles, NO-releasing nanoparticles, and chitosan-containing nanoparticles can fight drug resistance because they operate using multiple mechanisms. Therefore, to overcome the nanoparticle mechanisms, microbes must simultaneously have multiple gene mutations in their cell. Metal nanoparticles promote the rate of reaction and exhibit admirable catalytic potential due to the high rate of surface adsorption ability of organic pollutants and high surface area to volume ratio which diminishes the higher activation energy barrier. Metal oxide nanoparticles have a large number of surface reactive sites thus increasing the surface energy which may further enhance photocatalytic degradation of various pollutant dyes.
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